Chemistry Helpers
Bonding Definitions
Bonding Definitions


1)     Endothermic Reaction: heat is a reactant and is absorbed
2)     Exothermic Reaction: heat is a product and is released
3)     Lewis Dot Diagram: (electron dot diagram) – a chemical symbol surrounded by one to eight dots representing the valence electrons
4)     Kernel: the nucleus of the atom as well as the non valence electrons, represented by the symbol of the element
5)     Ions: when atoms have either a positive or negative charge due to the loss or gain of electrons
6)     Metallic Bond: results from the attraction of mobile valence electrons for an atoms positively charged kernel
7)     Malleability: a property of metals in that they can be hammered into shapes
8)     Octet Rule: atoms will gain, lose or share electrons in order to have a complete octet of eight valence electrons (the configuration of a noble gas)
9)     Non-Polar Covalent Bond: the equal sharing of electrons by two nonmetals
10)      Polar Covalent Bond: the unequal sharing of electrons by two nonmetals (the atom with the higher electronegativity will have the stronger pull and act like the nonmetal) 
11)      Multiple Covalent Bond: when atoms share more than one pair of electrons
12)    Molecule: a term used to describe anything that is covalently bonded
13)    Symmetrical Molecules: molecules that have identical parts on all sides of an axis 
14)     Asymmetrical Molecules: molecules that lack identical parts on all sides of an axis
15)    Polyatomic Ions: a covalently bonded group of atoms that have a net electric charge (when bonded to a metallic element also contain ionic bonds)
16)    Ionic Bond: a bond formed by the complete transfer of electrons
17)    Electronegativity: the ability to attract electrons 
18)     Intermolecular Forces: forces of attraction between molecules (covalently bonded)
19)      Dipoles:    polar molecules have positive and negative ends also known as dipoles (two poles)
20)      Hydrogen Bond: an intermolecular bond between a hydrogen atom in one molecule and a F, O or N atom in another molecule


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