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Nuclear Chemistry Definitions
Nuclear Chemistry Definitions

 

Definitions
1)     Nuclear Chemistry: deals with the changes in the nucleus of the atom
 
2)     Transmutationthe conversion of one element to another by means of a nuclear change.
 
3)     Natural Radioactivity: the spontaneous breakdown of atomic nuclei, accompanied by the release of some form of radiation.
 
4)     Induced radioactivityartificial radioactivity produced by bombarding the nuclei of stable atoms with high energy particles, thereby producing radioactive atoms.
 
5)     Radioisotopesan isotope of an element that emits radiation.
*All elements that have an atomic number than 83 have no stable isotopes!
 
6)     Alpha particles: the nucleus of helium
 
7)     Beta particlesan electron
 
8)     Gamma rayshigh frequency electromagnetic waves similar to x-rays, but of greater frequency
 
9)     Positrona positive subatomic particle with the same mass at the electron. Its charge is equal in quantity but opposite in sign to that of the electron.
 
10)Nuclear reactionreaction involving a change in the nuclear contents of one or more atoms. In nuclear reactions, mass is converted to energy.
 
11)Nuclear fissionthe splitting of an atomic nucleus into two smaller nuclei that are approximately equal in mass.
 
12)Fission reactorsa nuclear reactor used to control fission reactions.
 
13)Fusion reactiona nuclear reaction in which two or more light nuclei combine to form a single nucleus.
 
14)Moderatorsthe substance used in a nuclear reactor to slow down the velocity of the neutrons.
 
15)Half-lifethe time it takes for one half of the atoms in a given sample to decay.
 
16)Radioactive datingthe use of half-lives of radioisotopes in determining the age of the earth, ancient relics, and similar objects.
 
       17) Tracer: Any radioisotope used to follow the path of a material in a system.


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